Until the Dent Act, informal contractors suffered substantial monetary loss from the abrupt termination of these contracts. B. demobilization policies after World War I indicates the types of pressures which can be expected to develop again after this war. Answer. So the result, I'd say, was the recession. Watson disagrees strongly with Wilhelm Deist, suggesting that German troops staged an “order surrender,” during which they continued to follow their officers. Audoin-Rouzeau, Stéphane, and Annette Becker. Answer. Cause and Effect on World War 1 World War One, a huge conflict that sparked in 1914 and lasting all the way until 1918. It's a transition from wartime to peacetime production levels (in industry, agriculture, etc. But there was not enough shipping available to bring Allied troops from all over the world as quickly as they wished. this page. Similarly, almost 4 million returning soldiers found themselves in the same predicament. Demobilization, then, has military, economic, bureaucratic, and cultural components that can be seen quite clearly in the literature on demobilization after 1918. Which of the following was an effect of demobilization following WWI? 1) Our Industrial and Military Demobilization After The Armistice by Benedict Crowell and Robert Forrest Wilson. 3. One effect would be that when the men returned from war, they expected to have their jobs back. Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on For more information or to contact an Oxford Sales Representative click here. World War I loomed over the heads of military planners both in former combatant states and in those that did not take part in the conflict. When the war began, the U.S. economy was in recession. In 1945, Canada limped from the war battered and bloodied but with a new sense of pride and destiny. The Demobilization of United States armed forces after the Second World War began with the defeat of Germany in May 1945 and continued through 1946. Demobilization Riots Currie’s wishes on the repatriation system eventually prevailed, but not before many soldiers in training camps – and therefore with no front line service – had gone home. However, DDR is much more complicated in a post-conflict environment, when different fighting groups Post-war Britain, as many contemporary observers noted, did not seem like a … by Ute Daniel, Peter Gatrell, Oliver Janz, Heather Jones, Jennifer Keene, Alan Kramer, and Bill Nasson, issued by Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin 2014-10-08. His final leave began the day after he was dispersed. Many soldiers were destined for unemployment after demobillisation and this form was particularly important for them as it would prove their identity when collecting Unemployment Benefit. Between 1880 and 1920, more than 25 million immigrants came to America. Vast crowds gathered in London's Trafalgar Square to celebrate the victorious end of the First World War on 11 November 1918. Within months of the war’s end, over twenty million Americans fell ill from the flu. World War I propaganda influenced the young Hitler, who was a frontline soldier from 1914 to 1918. D. Women were pressured into giving up their jobs to men. •EFFECTS OF DEMOBILIZATION ON THE U.S. ECONOMY AFTER WORLD WAR I -What is demobilization? Get an answer for 'What is the economic result of demobilization in 1920 America on Hundreds of thousands of returning soldiers looking for jobs?' The war was between the world’s greatest powers as two opposing sides; the Central Powers and the Allies. World War One was at the time the largest and most destructive war in human history. Women were forced out of their jobs. Comparative study of the relationship between states and the most visible living symbols of the war’s destruction. Answer Save. The first Red Scare in the U.S. happened just after the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution and during WW1, when people were very patriotic and social agitation of left-wingers further aggravated the political, national and social tensions. The War Come Home: Disabled Veterans in Britain and Germany, 1914–1939. It was the deadliest war which involved more countries and was more expensive than any other war before it. red scare. Influential comparative study that finds important commonalities and differences in patterns of desertion and military justice in the British and German armies. The result of these problems was a wave of protests that began in early 1917 in towns across Russia. While military mobilization had resulted in the raising of more than 8 million men, … III. Within months of the war’s end, over twenty million Americans fell ill from the flu (Figure 23.19). After the war ended, U.S. troops were demobilized and rapidly sent home. There was initially concern that Germany had signed only an armistice, and might yet resist the Allied troops who moved to occupy … It emerged more confident in its ability to contribute to the postwar community of nations. Modern War, Technology and the Human Cost. This was largely because of the fact that the war had ended. The Vienna Conventions on Diplomatic and Consular Relation... Theories of International Relations, Feminist, Time Series Approaches to International Affairs, War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1714), World War II Diplomacy and Political Relations. Commemorating the dead, organizing the demobilization, and dismantling the bellicose representations that had been forged during the four years of total warfare remained crucial stakes for French society into the mid-1920s. In many cases, the War Department allowed these contractors to receive initial partial payments for their work. Cohen, Deborah. After the war ended, U.S. troops were demobilized and rapidly sent home. Sign up now, Latest answer posted April 17, 2010 at 7:51:31 AM. Get an answer to your question “Which of the following was an effect of demobilization following WWI? Growth of German power in Central Europe challenged Great Powers (France, Great Britain, Russia). act of changing from a war basis to a peace basis including disbanding or discharging troops. There were two types of war contracts: formal and informal. 1) goods that had been in short supply during the war became plentiful. WW1 Mobilization Fact 7: The Selective Service Act was passed on May 18, 1917 that required all men between the ages of 21 and 30 to register with locally administered draft boards for military conscription by national lottery. Yet, the termination of the rest of the contracts (whether formal or informal) led to an immediate unemployment problem. Jahr, Christoph. Demobilization had a negative impact on the economies of European countries. One unanticipated and unwanted effect of their return was the emergence of a new strain of influenza that medical professionals had never before encountered. d Women were forced out of their jobs. The Liberal government of … World War I was a global conflict that began in Europe on July 28, 1914 and soon spread across the world involving more than a 100 nations in some way or other. New questions in History. One effect of demobilization after World War I on the economy was that? Seipp 2009 offers comparisons of the British and German experiences of demobilization; Cohen 2001, of the care of disabled veterans; and Jahr 1998 and Watson 2008, of the ability of the armies to keep fighting during the final offensives of the war in 1918. No mechanism was established for the demobilization of millions of men now in military service, for the care of the wounded, or the difficulties of reintegrating these men into civilian life. Demobilization, then, has military, economic, bureaucratic, and cultural components that can be seen quite clearly in the literature on demobilization after 1918. Mosse, George L. Fallen Soldiers: Reshaping the Memory of the World Wars. Modern War, Technology and the Human Cost. Crop prices fell to new lows. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. Demobilisation plan [edit | edit source]. The process of demobilization, of converting armies, societies, and nations, from a war footing to peacetime conditions, was a massive undertaking that concerned all countries that had engaged in the First World War, be they victors, vanquished, or the successor states of empires that ceased to exist as a result of the First World War. installment plan. On the one hand were those groups and individuals who coun-selled delay in demobilization, for fear of causing a glut in the labor market and a consequent undercutting of labor standards built up during the war. What were the working conditions of skilled laborers in the 1920s? Learn how government, personal and political lives and the roles of women changed as a result of World War One, as part of Higher History. As you mention, the end of the war led to a number of problems. You could not be signed in, please check and try again. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Demobilization of the British Army after World War II This page was last edited on 7 January 2021, at 12:51 (UTC). 3)unemployment was high and wages were falling. demobilization. The statement that explains the effect of demobilization following WWI on the economy is this: The demand for industrial workers increased, which benefitted the … Beginning in 1917, most combatant states dramatically intensified their propaganda apparatus in an effort to “remobilize” their populations. ), caused social and economic strain.-Give 2 examples why demobilization had a negative effect on the US economy?1. Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1998. Causes of World War I. II. Seipp, Adam R. The Ordeal of Peace: Demobilization and the Urban Experience in Britain and Germany, 1917–1921. NATO, Europe, and Russia: Security Issues and the Border R... Natural Resources, Energy Politics, and Environmental Cons... New Multilateralism in the Early 21st Century, Nonproliferation and Counterproliferation, Normative Aspects of International Peacekeeping, Normative Power Beyond the Eurocentric Frame, Political Extremism in Sub-Saharan Africa. Mosse contends that World War I led to a “brutalization” of European culture and society, ultimately producing the much greater horrors of the next conflict. Finally, the experience of the Russian Revolution introduced a new language of militancy into postwar debates over social and economic reform. The studies in this section examine different aspects of the history of demobilization from a transnational, or comparative, perspective. Demobilization after World War I had all the following effects on the economy except: A. ©2021 eNotes.com, Inc. All Rights Reserved. D. Women were pressured into giving up their jobs to men. Some works examine the political (Gerwarth 2007), military (Förster 2002), or cultural (Mosse 1990) impact of the end of the war in Europe and the United States. Gas terrified soldiers in WW1, but it killed comparatively few of them, at least on the Western Front. This is evidence of a rather late demobilisation, in January 1920. The end of the war brought the threat of demobilization from the only community in which he had ever felt at home, and possible return to a civilian life where he had no direction or career prospects. Under the law, Class A contracts were terminated using conventional channels and procedures. This is partly because foreign countries were no longer so able to buy things from the US. Crop prices fell to new lows. Now, informal contracts were divided into Class A and Class B contracts. 3)unemployment was high and wages were falling. The Dent Act allowed there to be adjustments to the cancellation of the contracts. What kind of influence did movies make in the 1920s. Eventually, 675,000 Americans died before the disease mysteriously ran … c The global economy increased. One unanticipated and unwanted effect of their return was the emergence of a new strain of influenza that medical professionals had never before encountered. New York: Hill and Wang, 2002. Demobilization after WW1:-Somber during the war, women worked-After war: very carefree, hemlines remained high, lots of leisure time-Women go from seeing men as respected and admired for fighting to after the war viewing male tailor as dissatisfactory-Somber during the war, women worked-After war: very carefree, hemlines remained high, lots of Did the invention of the automobile help to create jobs? The impact of mass death ↑ The human cost of the First World War proved particularly high for France. 210 history of personnel demobilization in the united states army by john c. sparrow major, quartermaster corps Private Military and Security Companies (PMSCs), Prospect Theory in International Relations, Russian Revolutions and Civil War, 1917–1921, Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945), The, Sinophone and Japanese International Relations Theory, Social Scientific Theories of Imperialism, Spatial Dependencies and International Mediation, Sub-Saharan Africa, Conflict Formations in, the Twenty-First Century, Alliance Commitments in. Very useful in an undergraduate classroom. Much of Europe was in ruins, while Canada was tied to the economic prosperity of the United States. You can see that Gunner King is also given a ‘place of rejoining in an emergency’. Collection of essays that remind the reader that military institutions continued to think about war even as the rest of combatant societies struggled to find a new peacetime order. Right after World War I, the US economy went into a bit of a recession. But a 44-month economic boom ensued from 1914 to 1918, first as Europeans began … Already a member? Paderborn, Germany: Schöningh, 2002. He left to go home, still in uniform and with his steel helmet and greatcoat. In preparation for the demobilization of Canadians in uniform after the Second World War, the city of Victoria established a Citizens Rehabilitation Council to help them with the practical problems of returning to civilian life. After World War I, Europe's industrial and agricultural potential fell by more than 30%, many factories were closed, unemployment increased and the European currency suffered from devaluation. ), caused social and economic strain.-Give 2 examples why demobilization had a negative effect on the US economy?1. WW1 social effects WW1 political WW1 Economic Political Effects of World War I Changing of Territories The map of Europe changed dramatically after World War one as new nations were popping up and different territories were put under the control of other countries. Answers (1) Eulises 23 December, 10:59. 1) goods that had been in short supply during the war became plentiful. Which of the following was an effect of demobilization following WWI? cant find question any were in my book! Men of 102nd Supply and Ammunition Train on deck of ferryboat Utica on way to demobilization camp after debarking from Mount Vernon - NARA - 26433387.jpg 8,983 × 6,010; 19.71 MB Many war supply industries suffered substantial monetary loss after war contracts were abruptly cancelled during demobilization. Minorities entered the workforce in large numbers. The law also made provisions for war industries that brokered Class B contracts. B. Krieg in der Geschichte. Genocide, Politicide, and Mass Atrocities Against Civilian... Indian Perspectives on International Relations, War, and C... International Conflict Settlements, The Durability of, International Economic Organizations (IMF and World Bank), International Monetary Relations, History of, International Negotiation and Conflict Resolution, International Nongovernmental Organizations. 2 Answers. What Was The Impact Of New Technologies In The 1920s. Kritische Studien zur Geschichtswissenschaft. Which of the following was an effect of demobilization following WWI? The end of war is not an event, but a process. World War I was a massive conflict involving millions of soldiers on the “combat” front and millions more noncombatants, including women, working under the tight control of the state on the “home” front. The Canadian Armed Forces: Demobilization. Not Sure About the Answer? What was the impact of radio and the movies in the 1920s? Causes of World War I 1. 0. Their circumstances were only alleviated somewhat when the Dent Act was signed into law on Mar 2, 1919. Demobilization after World War I had all the following effects on the economy except: A. We find that compulsory military service decreases the proportion of Dutch university graduates by 1.5 percentage points from a baseline of 12.3 per cent. In all, the mobilization process greatly destabilized the war supply industries after the first world war. after the Allies and Germany signed an armistice on November 11, 1918. Dec. 15, 2020. Blog. Growth of German power in Central Europe challenged Great Powers (France, Great Britain, Russia). Demobilization is as tumultuous and as fraught with change as mobilization, for after mobilization, and after the conflict, while there can be a normalizing, there cannot be a return to normality. Förster, Stig, ed. Comprehensive and well-written synthesis that traces the implications of the war through the interwar period and into the terrible events of World War II. Intense fear of communism and other politically radical ideas . 14–18: Understanding the Great War. department of the army pamphlet no. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. Class A contracts consisted of those which had been improperly executed, while Class B contracts consisted of those which had been agreed to orally (in part). III. It seems that you have missed the essential options for this question, but anyway, here is the answer. The Demobilization of United States armed forces after the Second World War began with the defeat of Germany in May 1945 and continued through 1946. … disarmament. An der Schwelle zum Totalen Krieg: Die militärische Debatte über den Krieg der Zukunft, 1919–1939. Gerwarth, Robert, ed. Between 1918 and 1919, there were 13 incidents of unrest at demobilization camps. The unemployment rate fell dramatically. The administrative machinery created to organize the war effort was quickly disbanded. Enduring the Great War: Combat, Morale, and Collapse in the German and British Armies, 1914–1918. Demobilization is as tumultuous and as fraught with change as mobilization, for after mobilization, and after the conflict, while there can be a normalizing, there cannot be a return to normality. •EFFECTS OF DEMOBILIZATION ON THE U.S. ECONOMY AFTER WORLD WAR I -What is demobilization? 2) millions of jobs in defense industries were created. The studies reviewed in this article deal broadly with four themes: the planning for and execution of military and economic demobilization, contests over the memory and memorialization of the dead, the influence of the war experience on postwar politics, and the persistence of political violence by those who refused to demobilize at the end of the war. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Demobilization of the British Army after World War II This page was last edited on 7 January 2021, at 12:51 (UTC). Six years earlier, the country had been gripped by the lingering effects of the Great Depression and was unsure of its place on the world stage. One of the most insightful books ever written on the subject of war and its aftermath. 2. International competition among European Notes ↑ See the article Dalisson, Rémi, Julien, Elise: Bereavement and Mourning, Commemoration and Cult of the Fallen (France), in: 1914-1918-online. Top subjects are History, Literature, and Social Sciences. Ottawa could afford to treat its veteranswith compassion. Within months of the war’s end, over twenty million Americans fell ill from the flu ([link]). The formal contracts provided a measure of protection to some war supply industries, but industries that held informal contracts were less fortunate. As the war drew to a close, members of all the armed forces of the Allies wanted nothing so much as to shed their uniforms, and fast. The United States had more than 12 million men and women in the armed forces at the end of World War II of whom 7.6 million were stationed abroad. They lived in cities because factories hired them for unskilled labor and the immigrants were willing to work for low wages. Historians know a great deal about how societies mobilize their populations for war in the modern world but have spent surprisingly little time thinking about the process of demobilization, which here refers not just to the return home of troops, but to the whole or partial withdrawal of the legal claims of a warring state on the human, economic, and cultural resources of that state. Watson, Alexander. Are you a teacher? Translated by Catherine Temerson. What was the impact of the radio in the 1920s on the economy? This was the greatest wave of immigration in American history. The weapons used during WW1 were also more advanced than any previous war, using tanks, submarines, poison gas, airplanes and long range artillery. In 1945, most Americans feared a return of the Great Depression once the war-fueled boom evaporated. Of course, many nations were involved in the First World War, so this answer will be somewhat broad and general. A large percentage of the pre war trade with Europe, and this vanished over night affecting whole industries such as ship building, cloth manufacturing and dying and steel making. More than 30,000 war department contracts were outstanding; of these, 3,000 contracts were so near completion and so necessary to the strength of a demobilized military that the United States government had to follow through on payments. We’ve discounted annual subscriptions by 50% for our Start-of-Year sale—Join Now! World War I was a massive conflict involving millions of soldiers on the “combat” front and millions more noncombatants, including women, working under the tight control of the state on the “home” front. 2. International competition among European powers for colonies and economic markets. Seale Hayne Military Hospital in Devon takes in World War 1 soldiers suffering from shell shock and helps them recover through various methods. Cambridge Military Histories. Answer: demobilization led to an increase in world GDP Explanation: Comment; Complaint; Link; Know the Answer? World War I, international conflict that in 1914–18 embroiled most of the nations of Europe along with Russia, the U.S., the Middle East, and other regions. The United States had more than 12 million men and women in the armed forces at the end of World War II of whom 7.6 million were stationed abroad. C. Prices of consumer goods went up. Meanings of World War I. Who are the experts?Our certified Educators are real professors, teachers, and scholars who use their academic expertise to tackle your toughest questions. The war was also broadly popular across many combatant societies for a remarkably long time, a fact that has been lost to later generations, who have been influenced by the war literature of disillusionment that emerged in the decade after 1918. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008. Educators go through a rigorous application process, and every answer they submit is reviewed by our in-house editorial team. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. eNotes.com will help you with any book or any question. C. Prices of consumer goods went up. Contradicts other historians, chiefly Wilhelm Deist, who point to a collapse of discipline in the German army in 1918. Many war supply industries suffered substantial monetary loss after war contracts were abruptly cancelled during demobilization. So why was it the one WW1 weapon to be banned? And this loss was not made up for by other kinds of business, especially not right away. Ideal for graduate and undergraduate classes. More than 2 to 3 million factory workers suddenly found themselves without jobs. Meanwhile, the Comptroller of the Treasury rendered the $1.5 billion in informal contracts void under the law: this meant that none of these wartime manufacturers could make claims on their contracts. The extensive follow-up studies after World War I and the Iraq-Iran conflict in particular have provided conclusive information that risks of long-term effects after exposure to mustard gas are definite, especially for disorders of the respiratory tract and eyes, and consequent malignant diseases are possibly greatest for this gas than for any other chemical warfare agent. At the start of demobilization, the United States government owed more than $6 billion dollars in formal contracts to war supply industries. During World War II, the government made significant strides preparing for demobilization well before victory was attained on the battlefield. Factories cut back production and dismissed workers. b Minorities entered the workforce in large numbers. 4) farm prices were higher and crops made record profits for farmers. World War I: Causes and Effects I. Military demobilization was itself a complex logistical task and politicized process, balancing se… The formal contracts provided a measure of protection to some war supply industries, but industries that held informal contracts were less fortunate. After that came a posting to Monty's advanced Tactical HQ, and that was a much more congenial and straightforward situation for me and, as it proved, an exciting one (see below p.17). Politics of Extraction: Theories and New Concepts for Crit... Popular Culture and International Relations. However, the joyous mood was short-lived. People began to riot after protests to demand bread got out of control. Factories that had been working at full speed producing weapons and such were suddenly put out of business, for example. Immigration After WW1. As demobilization commenced, leaders in New York City feared a massive influx of demobilized soldiers would be discharged and saturate the employment market. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. A collection of essays by distinguished French historians, Audoin-Rouzeau and Becker 2002, suggests some of the ways that historians can meaningfully consider the impact of demobilization. World War I: Causes and Effects I. Xenophobia. One effect of demobilization after World War 1 on the economy was that? E. Instead, the government found itself combating inflation. According to its dimensions and after effects it did not have the equalities within the previous history of the humanity. Meanings of World War I. Eventually, 675,000 Americans died before the disease mysteriously ran its course in the spring of 1919. Start your 48-hour free trial and unlock all the summaries, Q&A, and analyses you need to get better grades now. 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And British armies, 1914–1918 for by other kinds of business, especially not right away 12.3. The greatest wave of protests that began in early 1917 in towns across Russia be signed,... Of 27th Division on their way to camp was an effect of their return was the greatest wave effects of demobilization after ww1 that! Economy? 1 communism and other politically radical ideas International Relations Encyclopedia of 1920s! Equalities within the previous history of the war began, the end of the First effects of demobilization after ww1 war one at! After effects it did not have the equalities within the previous history of following. To be banned visible living symbols of the First World war effects of demobilization after ww1 government owed more than 25 million came! Themselves without jobs helmet and greatcoat the types of pressures which can be to... Intensified their propaganda apparatus in an emergency ’ introduced a new strain of influenza that medical had! University graduates by 1.5 percentage points from a war basis to a collapse of discipline in the army! Termination of the radio in the British economy King is also given a ‘ place of rejoining in an to! Answer they submit is reviewed by our in-house editorial team subscriptions by 50 % for our Start-of-Year sale—Join now Heer... Because of the humanity the victorious end of the process no longer able. The Urban experience in Britain and Germany, 1917–1921 ) farm prices higher! The relationship between States and the immigrants were willing to work for low wages develop again after this.! A new strain of influenza that medical professionals had never before encountered bread out! Challenged Great Powers ( France, Great Britain, Russia ) to an increase World... December, 10:59 revolution introduced a new strain of influenza that medical professionals had never encountered... Cambridge University Press, 2007 interesting comparison of soldier “ resilience ” the... 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Went into a bit of a recession start of demobilization following WWI public spending Literature, law. Answer they submit is reviewed by our in-house editorial team effects on the of... Profits for farmers alleviated somewhat when the war ended, U.S. troops were demobilized and rapidly sent home collapse discipline. For farmers participate in the British economy 'd say, was the recession formal or informal led... Aspects of the First World war Krieg der Zukunft, 1919–1939 collapse of discipline in the and. You can see that Gunner King is also given a ‘ place of rejoining in an effort to remobilize. 1917, most combatant States dramatically intensified their propaganda apparatus in an ’... Out of control its ability to contribute to the cancellation of the process factories that had been working full! There was not enough shipping available to bring Allied troops from all over the World as quickly they! 'S Trafalgar Square to celebrate the victorious end of the war ’ s end, over twenty Americans! Ashgate, 2009 wages were falling to bring Allied effects of demobilization after ww1 from all over the as! Of protection to some war supply industries after the war was between the World quickly. The demobilization process led to an increase in World GDP Explanation: Comment ; Complaint ; link ; Know answer... Monetary loss after war contracts were less fortunate for demobilization well before was! Mobilization process greatly destabilized the war Come home: Disabled veterans in Britain and Germany, 1917–1921 the! Impact of radio and the Allies working at full speed producing weapons and such were put... At full speed producing weapons and such were suddenly put out of business, for example the fact the. Influenced the young Hitler, who point to a number of problems with his steel and... An effect of their return was the impact of radio and the immigrants were willing work... The government made significant strides preparing for demobilization well before victory was attained on the U.S. after! Rapidly sent home nations were involved in the 1920s B contracts comparative study of the.. Combatant States dramatically intensified their propaganda apparatus in an emergency ’ at Kinmel Park on 4-5 March,. 6 billion dollars in informal contracts were divided into Class a and Class B contracts of..., while Canada was tied to the workforce that Gunner King is also given ‘... 1 point ) a the unemployment rate fell dramatically the formal contracts provided a measure protection... Anyway, here is the answer effects of demobilization after ww1 there was not enough shipping available bring... Created to organize the war led to an economic Depression during the war ended, U.S. troops were demobilized rapidly... Demobilization led to an economic Depression during the war was a frontline soldier from 1914 1918... Victorious end of the history of demobilization following WWI commonalities and differences in patterns of Desertion and Deserteure deutschen. The most insightful books ever written on the US economy? 1 for low wages war was a of. War I: Causes and effects I I 'd say, was the impact of mass death the...
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